Shouting in the Dark? A Reassessment of the Role of De Facto States in the International System

Committee: Dr. Dave Armstrong (Chair), Dr. Thomas Kwasi Tieku & Dr. Bruce Morrison

How do de facto states balance the drive for external legitimacy with their need to sustain themselves? To answer this, I present a new measure that captures external legitimacy. This new measure accounts for variation in the international legitimacy of all the states who have not yet achieved international state recognition since 1945. The second portion of my project will be building from this work to generate insights into how survival strategies can affect a de facto states level of external legitimacy.

Countries with De Facto States (2021)

Peer-Reviewed Articles

Kwasi Tieku, Thomas, &  Megan Payler (2021). From Paternalism to the Chambas Formula for Mediation: Conceptualizing Cooperation between the UN and Regional Organizations in Mediating Conflicts, International Negotiation (published online ahead of print 2021). doi:

Manucripts Submitted for Review

Tyler Girard, Nicole McMahon, and Megan Payler. “Theorizing Norm Stagnation and the Evolution of Domestic Norm Adoption.” (Manuscript available upon request).